Ninite is a software program and website which allows users to install multiple pieces of software easily within a Microsoft Windows environment.


Reinstalling is the process of installing again, possible overwriting an initial installation. The most common use of the term reinstalling is in reference to software re-installation.


Spider-Man is a fictional Marvel Comics superhero. The character was created by writer-editor Stan Lee and writer-artist Steve Ditko. He first appeared in Amazing Fantasy #15 (Aug. 1962). Lee and Ditko conceived of the character as an orphan being raised by his Aunt May and Uncle Ben, and as a teenager, having to deal with the normal struggles of youth in addition to those of a costumed crime fighter. Spider-Man's creators gave him super strength and agility, the ability to cling to most surfaces, shoot spider-webs using devices of his own invention which he called "web-shooters," and react to danger quickly with his "spider-sense", enabling him to combat his foes.

New Avengers

The New Avengers is a fictional superhero team that appears in comic books published by Marvel Comics. The team has been featured in two American comic book series. Written by Brian Michael Bendis, both series have depicted a group of superheroes that form a new version of Marvel's premiere super hero team, the Avengers.


The X-Men are a superhero team in the Marvel Comics Universe. They were created by writer Stan Lee and artist Jack Kirby, and first appeared in The X-Men #1 (September 1963). The basic concept of the X-Men is that under a cloud of increasing anti-mutant sentiment, Professor Xavier created a haven at his Westchester mansion to train young mutants to use their powers for the benefit of humanity, and to prove mutants can be heroes.

X-Men Legacy

X-Men: Legacy is a comic book series published by Marvel Comics featuring the mutant superhero team, the X-Men.

Nintendo DSi

The Nintendo DSi is a handheld game system created by Nintendo and released between 2008 and 2009 in Japan, Australasia, Europe, North America, and China. It is a seventh-generation console and the third iteration of Nintendo DS; its primary market rival is Sony's PlayStation Portable. A larger model, entitled Nintendo DSi XL, was released between 2009 and 2010 in Japan, Europe and North America.

Action game

Action game is a video game genre that emphasizes physical challenges, including hand–eye coordination and reaction-time. The genre includes diverse subgenres such as fighting games, shooter games, and platform games, which are widely considered the most important action games, though some Real Time Strategy games are also considered to be action games. In an action game, the player typically controls the avatar of a protagonist. The avatar must navigate a game level, collecting objects, avoiding obstacles, and battling enemies with various attacks. At the end of a level or group of levels, the player must often defeat a large boss enemy that is larger and more challenging than other enemies. Enemy attacks and obstacles deplete the avatar's health and lives, and the game is over when the player runs out of lives. Alternatively, the player wins the game by finishing a sequence of levels. But many action games are unbeatable and have an indefinite number of levels, and the player's only goal is to maximize their score by collecting objects and defeating enemies.


Shooter games are a subgenre of action game, which often test the player's speed and reaction time. Because shooters make up the majority of action games, it is a fairly wide subgenre. It includes many subgenres that have the commonality of focusing "on the actions of the avatar using some sort of weapon. Usually this weapon is a gun, or some other long-range weapon". A common resource found in many shooter games is ammunition.

Dark Avengers

Dark Avengers was an American comic book series published by Marvel Comics. It is part of a series of titles that have featured various iterations of the superhero team the Avengers. Unusually, the series stars a version of the team that, unknown to the public in its fictional universe, contains several members who are supervillains disguised as established superheroes.

Marvel Comics

Marvel Publishing, Inc., commonly referred to as Marvel Comics, is an American company that publishes comic books and related media. Marvel Entertainment, Inc., a subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company, owns Marvel Publishing. Marvel counts among its characters such well-known properties as Spider-Man, Iron Man, the X-Men, Wolverine, the Hulk, the Fantastic Four, Captain America, Daredevil, Thor, Namor the Submariner, the Punisher, Ghost Rider, Doctor Strange, the Silver Surfer; villains such as Dr. Doom, the Green Goblin, Dr. Octopus, Venom, Magneto, Sabretooth, Galactus, Red Skull, Kingpin, Bullseye; and others. Most of Marvel's fictional characters operate in a single reality known as the Marvel Universe, with locales set in real-life cities such as New York, Los Angeles and Chicago.


Comics are a graphic medium in which images convey a sequential narrative.

Comic book

A comic book (often shortened to simply comic and sometimes called a funny book, comic paper or comic magazine) is a magazine made up of narrative artwork in the form of separate "panels" that represent individual scenes, often accompanied by dialog (usually in word balloons, emblematic of the comic book art form) as well as including brief descriptive prose. The first comic book appeared in the United States of America in 1934, reprinting the earlier newspaper comic strips, which established many of the story-telling devices used in comics. The term "comic book" arose because the first comic books reprinted humor comic strips, but despite their name, comic books do not necessarily operate in humorous mode; most modern comic books tell stories in a variety of genres. The Japanese and European comic book markets demonstrate this clearly. In the United States the super-hero genre dominates the market, even though other genres also exist.

Leap Year

A leap year is, in the Gregorian calendar, any year divisible by 4 except centenary years divisible by 400. A leap year (or intercalary year) is a year containing one extra day (or, in the case of lunisolar calendars, a month) in order to keep the calendar year synchronized with the astronomical or seasonal year.


February is the month following January and preceding March. February is the second month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. It is the shortest month and the only month with fewer than 30 days.


2010 (MMX) is a common year that started on a Friday and is the current year. In the Gregorian calendar, it is the 2010th year of the Common Era, or of Anno Domini; the 10th year of the 3rd millennium and of the 21st century; and the 1st of the 2010s decade.


Evil can be defined as morally objectionable behavior, morally bad or wrong; "evil purposes"; "an evil influence"; "evil deeds". Evil behaviour is that which causes harm or destruction or misfortune; "the evil that men do lives after them; the good is oft interred with their bones" - Shakespeare.

Douglas Crockford

Douglas Crockford is an American computer programmer who is known for his work in the development of JavaScript, and for having popularized the data interchange format JSON (JavaScript Object Notation). He also developed the JS Min JavaScript minifier script.


MIT is devoted to the advancement of knowledge and education of students in areas that contribute to or prosper in an environment of science and technology.

JS Min

JS Min (or JSMin) is a Javascript 'minifier'. JS Min is a script to remove comments and unnecessary whitespaces from JavaScript files.

Google Code

Google Code is Google's site for developer tools, APIs and technical resources. The site contains documentation on using Google developer tools and APIs—including discussion groups and blogs for developers using Google's developer products. There are APIs offered for almost all of Google's popular consumer products like Google Maps, YouTube, Google Apps and even Google Wave.


The Borg are a collective of cybernetic lifeforms with combine biological and mechanical / electrical systems to enhance themselves. They aim to achieve 'perfection' through the most logical and efficient manner.

Star Trek

Star Trek is a Gene Roddenberry written science fiction series.

USS Enterprise

The USS Enterprise is a fictional Starship from several of the Star Trek television series.


Q is a omnipotent and omnipresent being, beings and realm from the Star Trek fictional universe. The Q are considered to be equivalent in power to Gods but are considered playful and childish in many respects.

The Next Generation

The Next Generation is a Star Trek series.


Twitter is a popular microblogging website which ask the question 'What are you doing?'. Answers are restricted in length by a certain number of characters and are known as 'Tweets' within the Twitter community.


Microblogging is a type of blogging which utilises small posts which can be used for personal messages, news updates, corporate and personal promotional and social networking. Examples of microblogging websites are Twitter and


Bing is Microsoft's latest search engine, to compete with Google's search engine and replaces Microsoft's previous search engine, 'Live Search'.

Search engine optimisation

Search Engine Optimisation, also known as SEO, is the process of optimising a website and links to said website in such a way as to increase the website's ranking in the pages of search engines.

Social networks

A social network is a service, usually web based in the form of a website, which allows many people to communicate and share information on a personal or corporate/business level.


A proposal is a offer of a kind. The word proposal usually refers to a marriage proposal.


Nintendo is a large corporate entity which focuses on games and games consoles.

Nintendo DS

The Nintendo DS is Nintendo's recent portable games console. It has multiple versions each with different features. The main recognisable feature is all versions of the Nintendo DS is the dual screen and touchscreen technology.


Homebrew is the name for unofficial software created for a platform, which is usually a games console of some kind.


A ring is a metal circle shaped object which is often given as a gift to suggest friendship or love. They are often encrusted with diamonds or other precious jewels.


Bejeweled is a popular casual game.

Mozilla Firefox

Mozilla Firefox is Mozilla's flag ship product. Firefox is a web browser which focuses on security and usability.

Internet Explorer

Internet Explorer in Microsoft's web browser. Internet Explorer is shipped with all installations of Microsoft Windows since Windows 95. It is notably insecure and should not be trusted for normal web browser. Alternative browsers, such as Mozilla Firefox are highly recommend over Microsoft Internet Explorer.


Adobe is a large corporation which specialises in web development and multimedia presentation tools and format. The most recognisable products from Adobe are Adobe Dreamweaver, Adobe Flash Player and Adobe Acrobat Reader.

Train station

A train station is a place in which trains arrive and depart. It is also common for a train station to supply tickets, which work as boarding permission for customers. These tickets are purchased at the train station either from a front desk or through an automated electronic ticket terminal.


A clock or clock piece is device used to tell the time. They can be mechanical (clockwork) or electronic (digital) in nature. They represent time is the current common manner using the 24-hour per day system.


A countdown is a usually to a constantly flowing reduction in time or a representation of time which heads towards a specific deadline time and / or date.


A deadline is a pre-set date or time by which an action or series of events must or should take place before. Deadlines are common in education and employment situations. They can be stress inducing if the tasks required are of vital importance and the deadline is approaching.


Mobility is the ability to be mobile. It covers all forms of self transportation including running, walking and crawling. It also includes powered transportation in the form of auto-mobiles and other vehicles.


Disabled has two main definition. Disabled can mean a person or persons who are unable to move, possibly due to injury or illness. It can also refer to items that are unavailable often due to a malfunction or a desire for the item(s) to go unused.


A scooter is a small personal vehicle used for rapid transportation between places within a small range of one another. They are often electrically powered, but are also available under manual power. Very few scooters are available that are powered by an internal combustion engine due to the dangers of an engine is such a small vehicle.


The elderly refers to those persons in higher age brackets. It is a common believe in many cultures that elderly have wisdom.


Wordpress is a free, open-source PHP-based content management system. It is heavily used in the blogging community for managing blog posts, static pages, track backs and pinging website updates.


HTML stands for HyperText Markup Languages. It is the language in which all basic and fundamental web content is written. Every page you visit on the World Wide Web is written in HTML in at least some part, including these pages you are viewing right now.


CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets is system used to style websites and provide them with layout and colouring information. Cascading Style Sheets also provide border, hover events and some behavioural information although this is limited due to the styling only design principles behind Cascading Style Sheets.


In computing, a theme, style or skin is a complete layout change used in a desktop or web application. Outside of computing, a theme can be any arrangement and combination of layout, design and colour.

Google Maps

Google Maps is a service provided my Google which aims to provide over-head digital map rendering and satellite imagery to aid in navigation. Google Maps also provides the ability to draw out routes to receive textual directions and instructions.

Windows Live

Windows Live is a Microsoft online initiative to bring the Microsoft Windows operating systems and some of its functionality online in order to emphasis the cloud computing paradigm.


Live means non-recorded or being shown 'right now'. It also short short-hand onlinef for Microsoft Windows Live which is both a search engine and a variety of other Microsoft services.


A map is a overhead view or rendering of an area. The main purpose of a map to assist humans with navigation around an area they are unfamiliar with.

Windows Live Maps

Windows Live Maps is a Microsoft online mapping solution, similar in nature to Multimap or Google Maps.


A pond is a small localised body of water. Communities often gather around popular ponds due to the wildlife which is easily observed within them.


An ocean is a large mass of water.

Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest Ocean on the planet Earth. The total size (area) of the Atlantic Ocean is approximately 106.4 million square kilometres, which is 41.1 million square miles.


A mistake is failing to perform an action succesfully and without failure. All humans make mistakes.


The PlayStation is a video game console of Sony design. It refers itself to both the first console called the 'PlayStation' and also the entire series of PlayStation consoles.


PS3 is an abbreviation for Sony's Playstation 3 video games console.


Forums or 'a forum' is a place of discussion. The word has commonly been used to mean the Internet equivilent, a 'forum board'.

Virtual Console Forums

The Virtual Console Forums is an Internet forum designed for the discussion of the Nintendo Wii's retro video game download service.


Communication is the act of exchanging information between two entities. The word is most commonly used when referring to the exchange of spoken word between two human beings in order to portray a point or make discussion.


GTA is an abbreviation of Grand Theft Auto. This refers to either the video game series or the criminal offense of stealing a motor vehicle.

Single player

Single player is a term usually used to refer to a computer/video game which is designed to be played alone. Usually, single player games are story based.

Multi player

Multi player is a term which refers to video or computer games that are designed with a mode or solely to be played by multiple people. This can occur on the same computer/console, via a local area network (LAN) or over the Internet (WAN). Multiplayer games are often common at parties or LAN parties.

Xbox 360

The Xbox 360 is games console developed by Microsoft. It has been successful and has gained a firm second place behind the Sony Playstation 3. It is most well known for the online multi-player experience.

Playstation 3

The Playstation 3 is a Sony produced games console and according to most is the leader of the current games console generation due to its high specification. However, it carries a high price tag thus, in pure sales terms, it being beated by the Nintendo Wii games console.


Drugs can be used for medical purposes or for pleasure. Pleasurable use of drugs is often frowned upon by society, and is illegal in most parts of the world.

Sexual reference

A sexual reference is usually a descret mentioning of a sexual act or words which imply sexual acts or derivitives of such acts.

Demand forecasting software

Demand forecasting software is used in business and economics for different purposes. Businesses use it to plan the required supply for their products and/or services. In economics, it can used to predict future price elasticity.

Business forecasting software

This sort of software is ideal for business forecasting

Sales forecasting

Great software for forecasting sales

Business planning software

Business planning software uses economical and statistical data which is input to it and produces results often including graphs and chart which aid in the future planning of business activities.


A business is a corporate organised entity which is designed to provide consumers with products or services with the aim of generating a financial profit.


A forecast is a prediction of future events.


Forecasting is the prediction of future events. It is most commonly used in economic for demand, supply, price elasticity and in weather prediction for temperatures, storm patterns and cloud movement and formations.


Demand is the desire by a wide audience to own/use a product or service, generally provided by a corporation or business of some description. Demand usually goes hand in hand with supply during predictions.

Demand forecasting

Forecasting of demand in economics can be used alongside supply to generate an accurate representation of the price elasticity of demand.


A chat bot is another term used to define a chatterbot or a natural language response and input artificial intelligence system.


GlaDOS is the main enemy from the Valve video game 'Portal'. She is a female artificial intelligence which guides the player through the first part of the game, and she is seemingly destroyed in the final boss battle.


cPanel is an important component of the Web Host Manager web server management solution and is used to manage individual user accounts on the server.

Web Host Manager

Web Host Manager is a management web-based interface to manage web servers. Licenses are often supplied when a VPS or dedicated server solution is purchased from a web host. WHM is often ran on a Red Hat based system such as CentOS, due to it utilising the RPM (Red Hat package management) system.


WHM is an abbreviation which, within web developement and server management, stands for Web Host Manager.


Japan is a first-world country that is well known for its unusual culture in comparison to most western countries. Japan is also well known for its industry, gadgets, robotics and electronics. From an artistic persection, Japan has influenced many cultures with 'manga' style drawings and the resulting 'anime' animations. As a major economic power, Japan has become the world's second largest economy (based on the nominal GDP), with the United States being the first.

Japanese Models

Japanese models have distinct naming for the various differnet type of modelling, similar to many Japanese cultural difference. For example: Gravure idols are Japanese models who pose in bikinis, leotards, and other provocative clothing for photo spreads in magazines and photobooks aimed largely at men. Gravure idols/models by definately do not pose naked nor do they perform any form of sexually explicit acts within their work.


Sexy is word used to describe the appearance of a person, and is often relates of undertones of sexual attraction between two or more people.


A model can refer to a usually miniaturised representation of an object or idea, for use in planning or other activities. In addition, model can refer to the term beauty, fashion or glamour model.

Sexy Models

Sexy models generally refer to beauty or glamour models who are considered to have a natural appeal by a large public audience. This is obviously a matter of opinion due to tastes of both males and females while evaluating the attractiveness of people.

Arisa Oda

Arisa Oda is sexy Japanese model, whom is featured in many DVD and online works. Oda's work is primarily in bikini beauty modelling.

Miri Hanai

Miri Hanai is a Japanese bikini model. She was born and lives in Japan's capital, Toyko. She is 1 metre and 47 centimetres tall and her original modelling debut in April 2003.

Ourei Harada

Ourei Harada was born on the 25th of February 1986 and is a former Japanese bikini model. She retired from this line of work on 31th of March 2007.

Rio Natsume

Rio Natsume was born on the 20th of February 1985. She is a Japanese model who has released several DVDs and has appeared in many Japanese television programs. She has become one of the most popular Japanese big bust idols, achieving international fame, primarily through the internet.

Miyabi Isshiki

Miyabi Isshiki is a Japanese model whose fame has come primarily from the Internet and image sharing. She is widely thought of as one of the most sexy models of Japanese origin.

Harumi Nemoto

Harumi Nemoto is a Japanese bikini model who was born on the 28th of July 1980. She features prominently in the monthly manga magazine Manga Life and has done ever since October of 2007. She is considering to be one of the sexiest models in Japan.

Megumi Yamano

Megumi Yamano is a popular Japanese model, and has gained fame through a lot of her photography work.

Aki Hoshino

Aki Hoshino is often known as the "Angel of Japan" due to her beauty. Aki was born on the 14th of March 1977 and works as a Japanese bikini idol (model). She has appeared in Sabra (a men's magazine) a variety of television shows.

Yoko Matsugane

Matsugane is a Japanese gravure (or bikini) idol or model from Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. She is famous for her voluptuous figure.

Reon Kadena

Reon Kadena goes by many different stage names as a model, including Kadena Leon or Minamo Kusano. She is a female Japanese model and actress. She initially started work modelling nude, but after gaining most attention quit and now she is largely featured wearing revealing costumes, underwear and bikinis.


Radio is the transmission of signals, by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible light. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space. Early speculation that this required a medium of transport, called luminiferous aether, were found to be false. Information is carried by systematically changing (modulating) some property of the radiated waves, such as amplitude, frequency, or (more recently) phase. When radio waves pass an electrical conductor, the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. This can be detected and transformed into sound or other signals that carry information.

Scrobbling is a UK-based internet radio and music community website, founded in 2002. It claims over 21 million active users based in more than 200 countries. On 30 May 2007, CBS Interactive acquired for £140m ($280m USD). Using a music recommendation system known as "Audioscrobbler," builds a detailed profile of each user's musical taste by recording details of all the songs the user listens to, either on the streamed radio stations or on the user's computer or portable music device. This information is transferred to's database ("scrobbled") via a plugin installed into the user's music player. The profile data is displayed on a personal web page. The site offers numerous social networking features and can recommend and play artists similar to the user's favourites.

Music taste

A taste in music is a personal preference or opinion on the type/genre of music you personally like.


An album or record album is a collection of related audio or music tracks distributed to the public. The most common way is through commercial distribution, although smaller artists will often distribute directly to the public by selling their albums at live concerts or on their websites. The tracks on an album may be related by subject, mood or sound, and may even be designed to express a unified message or tell a story (as in the case of a concept album), or the tracks may simply represent a convenient grouping of recordings made at one time or place, or recordings whose commercial rights are controlled by a single record label. A group of audio tracks is considered to be an album if it has a generally consistent track list (often with minor differences or bonus tracks in different territories, or if the album is "reissued" at different times). An album may be released in a single format, such as on compact disc, or in multiple media formats, ranging from physical ones such as CDs, DVD audio, cassettes and vinyl records, to digital ones such as MP3 and AAC files or streaming audio.


Year 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday. The year 1997 was the Year of the Ox according to the Chinese Zodiac.

Folk music

Folk music can have a number of different meanings, including: Traditional music: The original meaning of the term "folk music" was synonymous with the term "Traditional music", also often including World Music and Roots music; the term "Traditional music" was given its more specific meaning to distinguish it from the other definitions that "Folk music" is now considered to encompass. Folk music can also describe a particular kind of popular music which is based on traditional music. In contemporary times, this kind of folk music is often performed by professional musicians. Related genres include Folk rock and Progressive folk music. In American culture, folk music refers to the American folk music revival, music exemplified by such musicians as Woody Guthrie, Pete Seeger, Bob Dylan and Joan Baez, who popularized and encouraged the lyrical style in the 1950s and 1960s

Acoustic guitar

An acoustic guitar is a guitar that uses only acoustic methods to project the sound produced by its strings. It is a retronym, coined after the advent of electric guitars, which depend on electronic amplification to make their sound audible.


Bathing is the immersion of the body in a fluid, usually water or an aqueous solution. It may be practiced for hygiene, religious or therapeutic purposes or as a recreational activity. Some spa facilities provide bathing in various other liquids such as chocolate or mud. There have been examples of bathing in champagne, baked beans and all manner of other substances. The intentional exposure of the body to any agent may be considered bathing, for example to sunlight (sunbathing).


The Roman Empire is the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and the Mediterranean. Usually, "Roman Empire" is the term used to describe the Roman state after the establishment of rule by emperors, but is sometimes in non-specialist contexts used more generally to refer to the expansionary Roman state both after and before the time of the first emperor, Augustus. The 500-year-old Roman Republic (510 BC – 1st century BC), which precedes it conceptually, had been weakened by the civil wars of the Late Republic. Losing most of the territory it had acquired at its height between the 4th and 8th century, it continued until the end of the European Middle Ages, when in 1453 its capital fell to the Ottoman Turks.


A museum is a "permanent institution in the service of society and of its development, open to the public, which acquires, conserves, researches, communicates and exhibits the tangible and intangible heritage of humanity and its environment, for the purposes of education, study, and enjoyment", as defined by the International Council of Museums. The UK Museums Association definition (adopted 1998) is: "Museums enable people to explore collections for inspiration, learning and enjoyment. They are institutions that collect, safeguard and make accessible artifacts and specimens, which they hold in trust for society." There are tens of thousands of museums all over the world. For a relatively short list, see the List of museums.


History is events from the past, record of the events from the past, and the study of the record from the events from the past. It is focused on human activity and leading up to the present day. More exactly, history is the field of research producing a continuous narrative and a systematic analysis of past events of importance to the human race, including the study of events over time and their relation to humanity. Those who study history as a profession are called historians.


A train is a connected series of vehicles that move along a track (permanent way) to transport freight or passengers from one place to another. The track usually consists of two rails, but might also be a monorail or maglev guideway. Propulsion for the train is provided by a separate locomotive, or from individual motors in self-propelled multiple units. Most modern trains are powered by diesel locomotives or by electricity supplied by overhead wires or additional rails, although historically (from the early 19th century to the mid-20th century) the steam locomotive was the dominant form of locomotive power. Other sources of power (such as horses, rope or wire, gravity, pneumatics, and gas turbines) are possible. The word 'train' comes from the Old French trahiner, itself from the Latin trahere 'pull, draw'.


MTH Electric Trains, formerly Mike's Train House, is an American toy train and model railroad designer, importer, and manufacturer, based in Columbia, Maryland. It is a privately held company. MTH's founder, Mike Wolf, started assembling and selling trains at the age of 12 in 1973 for Williams Electric Trains, which had begun producing reproductions of trains manufactured by Lionel Corporation in the early 1970s. By 1980, Wolf was operating a mail order business out of his parents' home, selling Williams trains and parts out of his bedroom.


Dating is any social activity performed as a pair or even a group with the aim of each assessing the other's suitability as their partner in an intimate relationship or as a spouse. The word refers to the act of agreeing on a time and "date" when a pair can meet and engage in some social activity. In many cultural traditions, dates are arranged by a third party, who may be a family member, an acquaintance, or a dedicated matchmaker. Recently matchmaking services have become popular. Although dating rules in Western popular culture have become more relaxed during the 20th century, there is considerable variation between individuals' values. For example, when the activity costs money, it has traditionally been the man's role to pay; in recent times the practice of "going Dutch" (splitting the expenses) has emerged. Traditional dating activities include sharing entertainment or a meal. In general, a person may date many different partners during the same time period in order to have the best chance of finding their most suitable available mate.


Love is an important factor in physical and emotional intimate relationships. Though the term is notoriously difficult to define, any thoughtful inquiry into the subject will show it to be qualitatively, not only quantitatively, different than liking, and the difference is not merely in the presence or absence of sexual attraction. According to one analysis, love in relationships is divided into two types: passionate and companionate. Passionate love is intense longing, and is often accompanied by physiological arousal (shortness of breath, rapid heart rate). Companionate love is affection and a feeling of intimacy and is not necessarily accompanied by physiological arousal.


Advice is a form of relating personal opinions, belief systems, personal values and recommendations about certain situations relayed in some context to another person, group or party often offered as a guide to action and/or conduct. Advice is believed to be theoretical, and is often considered taboo as well as helpful. The kinds of advice can range from systems of instructional and practical toward more esoteric and spiritual, and is often attributable toward problem solving, strategy seeking, and solution finding, either from a social standpoint or a personal one. Advice may pertain to relationships, lifestyle changes, legal choices, business goals, personal goals, career goals, education goals, religious beliefs, personal growth, motivation, inspiration and so on. Advice is not pertinent to any solid criteria, and may be given freely, or only given when asked upon. In some cultures advice is socially unacceptable to be released unless requested. In other cultures advice is given more openly. Basically a more acceptable definition is that advice is merely an opinion about what a person or group could or should do in any given situation.


Marriage is a personal union between individuals. This union may also be called matrimony, while the ceremony that marks its beginning is called a wedding and the status created is sometimes called wedlock. The act of marriage changes the personal status of the individuals in the eyes of the law and society. Marriage is an institution in which interpersonal relationships (usually intimate and sexual) are sanctioned with governmental, social, or religious recognition. It is often created by a contract or through civil processes. Civil marriage is the legal concept of marriage as a governmental institution, in accordance with marriage laws of the land. Marriage may take many forms: for example, a union between one man and one woman as husband and wife is a monogamous heterosexual marriage; polygamy — in which a person takes more than one spouse — is common in many societies; and, in some jurisdictions and denominations, a same-sex marriage unites people of the same sex. (Other jurisdictions may not allow this, but instead provide civil unions or domestic partnerships conferring some or all of the benefits of married status.)


Conversation is the verbalization of concepts involving abstractions and concrete objects which make up the world we live in. A conversation is communication by two or more people, or by ones self. Conversations are the ideal form of communication in some respects, since they allow people with different views of a topic to learn from each other. A speech, on the other hand, is an oral presentation by one person directed at a group.


Shyness is most likely to occur during unfamiliar situations, though in severe cases it may hinder an individual in his or her most familiar situations and relationships as well. Shy individuals avoid the objects of their apprehension in order to avoid feeling uncomfortable and inept, thus the situations remain unfamiliar and the shyness perpetuates itself. Shyness may fade with time (a child who is shy toward strangers, for instance, may eventually lose this trait when older and more socially adept), or may be an integrated, life-long character trait, often by adolescence and young adulthood (but most likely around the age of 13). Humans experience shyness to different degrees and in different areas. For example, an actor may be loud and bold on stage, but shy in an interview. In addition, shyness may manifest when one is in the company of certain people and completely disappear when with others—one may be outgoing with friends and family, but experience love-shyness toward potential partners, even if strangers are generally not an obstacle. The condition of true shyness may simply involve the discomfort of difficulty in knowing what to say in social situations, or may include crippling physical manifestations of uneasiness. Shyness usually involves a combination of both symptoms, and may be quite devastating for the sufferer, in many cases leading them to feel that they are boring, or exhibit bizarre behaviour in an attempt to create interest, alienating them further. Instinctive behavioural traits in social situations such as smiling, easily producing suitable conversational topics, assuming a relaxed posture and making good eye contact, which come spontaneously for the average person, may not be second nature for a shy person, requiring struggle or being completely unattainable.


Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a country in Central Europe. It is bordered to the north by the North Sea, Denmark, and the Baltic Sea; to the east by Poland and the Czech Republic; to the south by Austria and Switzerland; and to the west by France, Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands. The territory of Germany covers 357,021 km² and is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. With over 82 million inhabitants, it comprises the largest population among the member states of the European Union and is home to the third-highest number of international migrants.


An empire (from the Latin "imperium", denoting military command within the ancient Roman government) is a state that extends dominion over populations distinct culturally and ethnically from the culture/ethnicity at the center of power. Scholars still debate about what exactly constitutes an empire, and other definitions may emphasize economic or political factors. Like other states, an empire maintains its political structure at least partly by coercion. Land-based empires (such as the Mongol Empire or the Achaemenid Persia) tend to extend in a contiguous area; sea-borne empires, also known as thalassocracies (the Athenian, Portuguese and the British empires provide examples), may feature looser structures and more scattered territories. Empires predate the Romans by several millennia: for example, the Akkadian Empire of Sargon of Akkad was the earliest model of a far-flung, land-based empire, founded in the 24th century BC. The New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt, at one point in time another major force of the ancient Near East, was established as a loosely defined empire in the 15th century BC under Thutmose III by further invading and then incorporating Nubia and the ancient city-states of the Levant. It is worth mentioning, however, that these early models of imperialism lacked effective and administrative control of their conquered territories. The earliest centrally organized empire, comparable to that of ancient Rome, was the Assyrian empire, which lasted roughly from 745 BC to 612 BC.


Year 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar).


Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar).


English is an Indo-European, West Germanic language originating in England, and is the first language for most people in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, and the Anglophone Caribbean. It is used extensively as a second language and as an official language throughout the world, especially in Commonwealth countries and in many international organizations. Modern English is sometimes described as the first global lingua franca. English is the dominant international language in communications, science, business, aviation, entertainment, radio and diplomacy. The influence of the British Empire is the primary reason for the initial spread of the language far beyond the British Isles. Since World War II, the growing economic and cultural influence of the United States has significantly accelerated the adoption of English.


An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress is the feminine form. As a title, "empress" may indicate the wife of an emperor (empress consort) or a woman who is a ruling monarch (empress regnant). Emperors are generally recognized to be above kings in honor and rank. Today the Emperor of Japan is the only remaining emperor on the throne in the world. The last year when there was more than one emperor on the throne was 1979 with three: Japan, Iran, and the Central African Empire. The latter two were overthrown that same year.


France is a unitary semi-presidential republic. Its main ideals are expressed in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. France was the world's foremost power from the latter half of the 17th century until the early 19th century. In the 18th and 19th centuries, France built one of the largest colonial empires of the time, stretching across West Africa and Southeast Asia, prominently influencing the cultures and politics of the regions. France is a developed country, with the sixth (nominal GDP) or eighth (PPP) largest economy in the world. It is the most visited country in the world, receiving over 79 million foreign tourists annually (including business visitors, but excluding people staying less than 24 hours in France). France is one of the founding members of the European Union, and has the largest land area of all members. France is also a founding member of the United Nations, and a member of the Francophonie, the G8, and the Latin Union. It is one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council; it is also an acknowledged nuclear power.


At 17,075,400 square kilometres (6,592,800 sq mi), Russia is by far the largest country in the world, covering more than an eighth of the Earth’s land area; with 142 million people, it is the ninth largest by population. It extends across the whole of northern Asia and 40% of Europe, spanning 11 time zones and incorporating a great range of environments and landforms. Russia has the world's largest mineral and energy resources, and is considered an energy superpower. It has the world's largest forest reserves and its lakes contain approximately one-quarter of the world's unfrozen fresh water.


Rust is a general term for a series of iron oxides, usually red oxides, formed by the reaction of iron with oxygen in the presence of water or air moisture. When in contact with water and oxygen iron will rust. If salt is present, for example, in salt water, the iron will rust more quickly.


Biaxially-oriented polyethylene terephthalate (boPET) polyester film is used for its high tensile strength, chemical and dimensional stability, transparency, reflective, gas and aroma barrier properties and electrical insulation. A variety of companies manufacture boPET and other polyester films under different trade names. In the US and Britain, the most well-known trade names are Mylar and Melinex.


A firearm is a device that can be used as a weapon that fires either single or multiple projectiles propelled at high velocity by the gases produced through rapid, confined burning of a propellant. This process of rapid burning is technically known as deflagration. In older firearms, this propellant was typically black powder, but modern firearms use smokeless powder, cordite, or other propellants. Most modern firearms (with the notable exception of smoothbore shotguns) have rifled barrels to impart spin to the projectile for improved flight stability.

World war

A world war is a war affecting the majority of the world's most powerful and populous nations usually to gain control of another territory or for a source of trade. World wars span multiple continents and can last for years before showing any signs of slowing. In fact, as a world war progresses, nations devote more and more of their resources to the conflict, resulting in ever-escalating destruction. World wars result in unparalleled devastation to almost every country involved, with loss of life which can only be estimated. The term has usually been applied to two conflicts of unprecedented scale that occurred during the 20th century: World War I (1914–1918), and World War II (1939–1945).

World war 2

World War II, or the Second World War, was a global military conflict, the joining of what had initially been two separate conflicts. The first began in Asia in 1937 as the Second Sino-Japanese War; the other began in Europe in 1939 with the German invasion of Poland.

Trade name

A trade name, also known as a trading name or a business name, is the name which a business trades under for commercial purposes, although its registered, legal name, used for contracts and other formal situations, may be another. Pharmaceuticals also have trade names (e.g. "Aspirin"), often dissimilar to their chemical names ("acetylsalicylic acid"). Trading names are sometimes registered as trademarks or are regarded as brands.


Produce is a general American term for a group of farm-produced goods, generally limited to fruits and vegetables. More specifically, the term "produce" often implies that the foods are fresh and generally in the same state as where they were harvested. In supermarkets the term is also used to refer to the section where fruits and vegetables are kept. Produce is the main product sold by greengrocers, farmers' markets, and fruit markets.


Delivery is the process of transporting goods. Most goods are delivered through a transportation network. Cargo (physical goods) are primarily delivered via roads and railroads on land, shipping lanes on the sea and airline networks in the air. Certain specialized goods may be delivered via other networks, such as pipelines for liquid goods, power grids for electrical power and computer networks such as the Internet or broadcast networks for electronic information.


Food is any substance, usually composed primarily of carbohydrates, fats, water and/or proteins, that can be eaten or drunk by an animal for nutrition or pleasure. Items considered food may be derived from plants, animals or other categories such as fungus or fermented products like alcohol. Although many human cultures sought food items through hunting and gathering, today most cultures use farming, ranching, and fishing, with hunting, foraging and other methods of a local nature included but playing a minor role.

Fresh food

Fresh food is any food item that is not preserved by canning, dehydration, freezing or smoking.


The term "vegetable" generally refers to the edible part of a plant. The definition is traditional rather than scientific. It is somewhat arbitrary and subjective, as it is determined by individual cultural customs of cooking and food preparation. Normally, any herbaceous plant or plant part which is regularly eaten as food by humans would be considered to be a vegetable. Mushrooms, though belonging to the biological kingdom Fungi, are also generally considered vegetables in the retail industry. Nuts, seeds, grains, herbs, spices and culinary fruits (see below), are not normally considered to be vegetables, with the exception of corn, even though they are all parts of plants.


Meat, in its broadest definition, is animal tissue used as food. Most often it refers to skeletal muscle and associated fat, but it may also refer to non-muscle organs, including lungs, livers, skin, brains, bone marrow, blood and kidneys. The word meat is also used by the meat packing and butchering industry in a more restrictive sense - the flesh of mammalian species (pigs, cattle, etc.) raised and butchered for human consumption, to the exclusion of fish, poultry, and eggs. Eggs and seafood are rarely referred to as meat even though they consist of animal tissue. Animals that consume only or mostly animals are carnivores. The meat packing industry slaughters, processes, and distributes meat for human consumption in many countries.


An egg is a round or oval body laid by the female of many animals, consisting of an ovum surrounded by layers of membranes and an outer casing, which acts to nourish and protect a developing embryo and its nutrient reserves. Most edible eggs, including bird eggs and turtle eggs, consist of a protective, oval eggshell, the albumen (egg white), the vitellus (egg yolk), and various thin membranes. Every part is edible, although the eggshell is generally discarded. Nutritionally, eggs are considered a good source of protein and choline. Roe and caviar are edible eggs produced by fish.


Bread is a staple food around the world that is prepared by baking a dough of flour and water. It may be leavened or unleavened. Salt, fat and a leavening agent such as yeast are common ingredients, though breads may contain a range of other ingredients: milk, egg, sugar, spice, fruit (such as raisins), vegetables (such as onion), nuts (such as walnuts) or seeds (such as poppy seeds). Bread is one of the oldest prepared foods, dating back to the Neolithic era. The development of leavened bread can probably also be traced to prehistoric times. Fresh bread is prized for its taste, aroma and texture. Retaining its freshness is important to keep it appetizing. Bread that has stiffened or dried past its prime is said to be stale. Modern bread is often wrapped in paper or plastic film, or stored in an airtight container such as a breadbox to keep it fresh longer. Bread that is kept in warm, moist environments is prone to the growth of mold. It becomes stale more quickly in the low temperature of a refrigerator, although by keeping it cool, mold is less likely to grow. The inner, soft part of bread is referred to as the crumb, which is not to be confused with small bits of bread that often fall off, called crumbs. The latter term is in common use, while crumb is an esoteric word used mainly by culinary professionals. The outer hard portion of bread is referred to as the crust.


The term fruit has many different meanings depending on context. In botany, a fruit is the ripened ovary—together with seeds—of a flowering plant. In many species, the fruit incorporates the ripened ovary and the surrounding tissues. Fruits are the means by which flowering plants disseminate seeds. In cuisine, when discussing fruit as food, the term usually refers to those plant fruits that are sweet and fleshy, examples of which include plums, apples and oranges. However, a great many common vegetables, as well as nuts and grains, are the fruit of that plant species. No single terminology really fits the enormous variety that is found among plant fruits. The cuisine terminology for fruits is inexact and will remain so.


Graphics are visual presentations on some surface, such as a wall, canvas, computer screen, paper, or stone to brand, inform, illustrate, or entertain. Examples are photographs, drawings, Line Art, graphs, diagrams, typography, numbers, symbols, geometric designs, maps, engineering drawings, or other images. Graphics often combine text, illustration, and color. Graphic design may consist of the deliberate selection, creation, or arrangement of typography alone, as in a brochure, flier, poster, web site, or book without any other element. Clarity or effective communication may be the objective, association with other cultural elements may be sought, or merely, the creation of a distinctive style. Graphics can be functional or artistic. Graphics can be imaginary or represent something in the real world. The latter can be a recorded version, such as a photograph, or an interpretation by a scientist to highlight essential features, or an artist, in which case the distinction with imaginary graphics may become blurred.


A register is an official written record of names or events or transactions.


Hell, according to many religious beliefs, is a place of suffering during afterlife where the wicked or unrighteous souls are punished. Hell is usually depicted as underground. Within Islam and Christianity, Hell is traditionally depicted as fiery and painful. Some other traditions, however, portray Hell as cold and gloomy. Existence after life is not concrete in Judaism and may be portrayed as a state of neutrality, an eternal nothingness ("sheol", often mis-translated as hell), simply non-life. Some theologies of Hell offer graphic and gruesome detail (for example, Hindu Naraka). Religions with a linear divine history often depict Hell as endless (for example, see Hell in Christian beliefs). Religions with a cyclic history often depict Hell as an intermediary period between incarnations (for example, see Chinese Di Yu). Punishment in Hell typically corresponds to sins committed in life. Sometimes these distinctions are specific, with damned souls suffering for each wrong committed (see for example Plato's myth of Er or Dante's The Divine Comedy), and sometimes they are general, with sinners being relegated to one or more chamber of Hell or level of suffering (for example, Augustine of Hippo asserting that unbaptized infants, whom he believed to be deprived of Heaven, suffer less in Hell than unbaptized adults). In Islam and Christianity, however, faith and repentance play a larger role than actions in determining a soul's afterlife destiny. Hell is often portrayed populated with demons, who torment the damned. Many are ruled by a death god, such as Nergal, the Hindu Yama, or concepts of the Christian Satan. In contrast to Hell, other general types of afterlives are abodes of the dead and paradises. Abodes of the dead are neutral places for all the dead (for example, see sheol), rather than prisons of punishment for sinners. A paradise is a happy afterlife for some or all the dead (for example, see heaven). Modern understandings of Hell often depict it abstractly, as a state of loss rather than as fiery torture literally under the ground.

Rowan Atkinson

Rowan Sebastian Atkinson (born 6 January 1955) is an English comedian, actor and writer, famous for his title roles in the British television comedies Blackadder and Mr. Bean. He has been listed in The Observer as one of the 50 funniest acts in British comedy, and amongst the top 50 comedy acts ever in a 2005 poll of fellow comedians.


YouTube is a video sharing website where users can upload, view and share video clips. YouTube was created in mid-February 2005 by three former PayPal employees. The San Bruno-based service uses Adobe Flash technology to display a wide variety of user-generated video content, including movie clips, TV clips and music videos, as well as amateur content such as videoblogging and short original videos. In October 2006, Google Inc. announced that it had reached a deal to acquire the company for US$1.65 billion in Google stock. The deal closed on November 13, 2006. Unregistered users can watch most videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos. Some videos are available only to users of age 18 or older (e.g. videos containing potentially offensive content). The uploading of videos containing pornography, nudity, defamation, harassment, commercial advertisements and material encouraging criminal conduct is prohibited. Related videos, determined by title and tags, appear onscreen to the right of a given video. In YouTube's second year, functions were added to enhance user ability to post video 'responses' and subscribe to content feeds.


Video is the technology of electronically capturing, recording, processing, storing, transmitting, and reconstructing a sequence of still images representing scenes in motion. Video technology was first developed for television systems, but has been further developed in many formats to allow for consumer video recording. Video can also be viewed through the Internet as video clips or streaming media clips on the internet With Video and new ways for media to reach a global audience on there computer monitors.


"Comedy" has a popular meaning (any discourse generally intended to amuse, especially in television, film, and stand-up comedy). This must be carefully distinguished from its academic definition, namely the comic theatre, whose Western origins are found in Ancient Greece. In the Athenian democracy, the public opinion of voters was remarkably influenced by the political satire performed by the comic poets at the theaters. The theatrical genre can be simply described as a dramatic performance which pits two societies against each other in an amusing agon or conflict. Northrop Frye famously depicted these two opposing sides as a "Society of Youth" and a "Society of the Old" (The Anatomy of Criticism, 1957), but this dichotomy is seldom described as an entirely satisfactory explanation.


A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees at all levels (associate, bachelor, master, and doctorate) in a variety of subjects. A university provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education. The word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, roughly meaning "community of teachers and scholars".


Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and also something less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, positive judgment and well-developed wisdom. Education has as one of its fundamental aspects the imparting of culture from generation to generation (see socialization). Education means 'to draw out', facilitating realization of self-potential and latent talents of an individual. It is an application of pedagogy, a body of theoretical and applied research relating to teaching and learning and draws on many disciplines such as psychology, philosophy, computer science, linguistics, neuroscience, sociology —often more profound than they realize—though family teaching may function very informally.


Stafford is the county town of Staffordshire in England. It lies in the north of the West Midlands region, between Wolverhampton and Stoke-on-Trent. The population of Stafford was given in the 2001 census as 124,531 (includes that of the surrounding borough of Stafford).


Lichfield is a small city and civil parish in Staffordshire, England. One of seven civil parishes with city status in England, Lichfield is situated 25 km (16 miles) north of Birmingham and 200 km (124 miles) northwest of central London. Lichfield is notable for its three-spired cathedral and as the birthplace of Dr. Johnson, the writer of the first authoritative Dictionary of the English Language. Today it still retains its old importance as an ecclesiastical centre, but its industrial and commercial development has been relatively small; the centre of the city thus retains an essentially old-world character, with pockets of historic charm. Lichfield is the largest and most populous settlement within the Lichfield local government district. The population of the district according to the 2001 census is 93,237; of the city itself 27,900, this discrepancy being mainly accounted for by the inclusion of the town of Burntwood in Lichfield District, which has a similar population to Lichfield.


Stoke-on-Trent (often abbreviated to Stoke) is a city in Staffordshire, England, which forms a linear conurbation almost twelve miles (19 km) long, with an area of 36 square miles (93 km²). Together with the Borough of Newcastle-under-Lyme, Stoke forms the The Potteries Urban Area. This, together with the rural Staffordshire Moorlands area, forms North Staffordshire, which in 2001, had a population of 457,165. The city formed by the Federation of six originally separate towns and numerous villages in the early 20th century. The original settlement from which the federated town (not a City until 1925) took its name was Stoke-upon-Trent, because this was where the administration (and chief mainline railway station) was located. After the union, Hanley emerged as the primary commercial centre in the city, despite the efforts of its rival, Burslem. The three other component towns are Tunstall, Longton, and Fenton. Stoke-on-Trent is considered to be the home of the pottery industry in the United Kingdom and is commonly known as The Potteries. Formerly a primarily industrial conurbation, it is now a centre for service industries and distribution centres. The city is a unitary authority with a directly elected mayor.


Staffordshire (abbreviated Staffs) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands region of England. The county town is Stafford. Part of the National Forest lies within its borders. It adjoins the ceremonial counties of Cheshire, Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Warwickshire, West Midlands, Worcestershire, and Shropshire. The largest city in ceremonial Staffordshire is Stoke-on-Trent. Lichfield also has city status, though is considerably smaller. Wolverhampton and Walsall used to be in Staffordshire but are now within the West Midlands. Major towns include Burton upon Trent, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Cannock, Tamworth, and Stafford itself. Staffordshire is divided into a number of districts. These are Cannock Chase, East Staffordshire, Lichfield, Newcastle-under-Lyme, South Staffordshire, the Borough of Stafford, Staffordshire Moorlands, and Tamworth. Stoke-on-Trent is administered as an independent unitary authority.

Web Browser

A web browser is a software application which enables a user to display and interact with text, images, videos, music and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. Text and images on a Web page can contain hyperlinks to other Web pages at the same or different website. Web browsers allow a user to quickly and easily access information provided on many Web pages at many websites by traversing these links. Web browsers format HTML information for display, so the appearance of a Web page may differ between browsers. Some of the Web browsers available for personal computers include Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, Opera, and Flock, in order of descending popularity (in March 2008). Web browsers are the most commonly used type of HTTP user agent. Although browsers are typically used to access the World Wide Web, they can also be used to access information provided by Web servers in private networks or content in file systems.


Mozilla was the official, public, original name of Mozilla Application Suite by the Mozilla Foundation, currently known as SeaMonkey suite. In informal use it has been used in a number of ways and in combination with other phrases, though all of them have been related to the now-defunct Netscape Communications Corporation and its related application software.

DVD Player

A DVD player is a device that plays discs produced under both the DVD Video and DVD Audio technical standards, two different and incompatible standards.

High Definition

High-definition (HD) video generally refers to any video system of higher resolution than standard-definition (SD) video, most commonly at display resolutions of 1280×720 (720p) or 1920×1080 (1080i or 1080p). This article discusses the general concepts of high-definition video, as opposed to its specific applications in television broadcast (HDTV), video recording formats (HDCAM, HDCAM-SR, DVCPRO HD, D5 HD, XDCAM HD, HDV and AVCHD), the optical disc delivery system Blu-ray Disc and the video tape format D-VHS.


Sony Corporation is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation and one of the world's largest media conglomerates with revenue of $70.303 billion (as of 2007) based in Minato, Tokyo. Sony is one of the leading manufacturers of electronics, video, communications, video game consoles and information technology products for the consumer and professional markets, which developed the company into one of the world's richest companies. Sony Corporation is the electronics business unit and the parent company of the Sony Group, which is engaged in business through its five operating segments — electronics, games, entertainment (motion pictures and music), financial services and other. These make Sony one of the most comprehensive entertainment companies in the world. Sony's principal business operations include Sony Corporation (Sony Electronics in the U.S.), Sony Pictures Entertainment, Sony Computer Entertainment, Sony BMG Music Entertainment, Sony Ericsson and Sony Financial Holdings. As a semiconductor maker, Sony is among the Worldwide Top 20 Semiconductor Sales Leaders. The company's slogan is Sony. Like no other.


DVD (also known as "Digital Versatile Disc" or "Digital Video Disc" - see Etymology) is a popular optical disc storage media format. Its main uses are video and data storage. Most DVDs are of the same dimensions as compact discs (CDs) but store more than six times as much data. Variations of the term DVD often describe the way data is stored on the discs: DVD-ROM has data which can only be read and not written, DVD-R and DVD+R can be written once and then function as a DVD-ROM, and DVD-RAM, DVD-RW, or DVD+RW hold data that can be erased and thus re-written multiple times. The wavelength used by standard DVD lasers is 650 nm, and thus has a red color. DVD-Video and DVD-Audio discs respectively refer to properly formatted and structured video and audio content. Other types of DVDs, including those with video content, may be referred to as DVD-Data discs. As next generation High definition optical formats also use a disc identical in some aspects yet more advanced than a DVD, such as Blu-ray Disc, the original DVD is often given the retronym SD DVD (for standard definition).


A Compact Disc (or CD) is an optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio. The CD, available on the market since late 1982, remains the standard playback medium for commercial audio recordings to the present day. Standard CDs have a diameter of 120 mm and can hold up to 80 minutes of audio. There is also the Mini CD, with diameters ranging from 60 to 80 mm; they are sometimes used for CD singles, storing up to 24 minutes of audio. The technology was later adapted and expanded to include data storage (CD-ROM), write-once audio and data storage (CD-R), rewritable media (CD-RW), SACD, VCD, SVCD, PhotoCD, PictureCD, CD-i, and Enhanced CD. CD-ROMs and CD-Rs remain widely used technologies in the computer industry. The CD and its extensions have been extremely successful: in 2004, worldwide sales of CD audio, CD-ROM, and CD-R reached about 30 billion discs. By 2007, 200 billion CDs had been sold worldwide.


News is any new information or information on current events which is presented by print, broadcast, Internet, or word of mouth to a third party or mass audience. News, the reporting of current information on television and radio, and in newspapers and magazines.


PageRank is a link analysis algorithm that assigns a numerical weighting to each element of a hyperlinked set of documents, such as the World Wide Web, with the purpose of "measuring" its relative importance within the set. The algorithm may be applied to any collection of entities with reciprocal quotations and references. The numerical weight that it assigns to any given element E is also called the PageRank of E and denoted by PR(E). The name PageRank is a trademark of Google. The PageRank process has been patented (U.S. Patent 6,285,999 ). The patent is not assigned to Google but to Stanford University.


StoryRank is a theoretical change of Google's PageRank. Its ideas are used in the automated Google News service.


A web hosting service is a type of Internet hosting service that allows individuals and organizations to provide their own website accessible via the World Wide Web. Web hosts are companies that provide space on a server they own for use by their clients as well as providing Internet connectivity, typically in a data center. Web hosts can also provide data center space and connectivity to the Internet for servers they do not own to be located in their data center, called colocation.


A website (alternatively, web site or Web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or more web servers, usually accessible via the Internet. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML, that is almost always accessible via HTTP, a protocol that transfers information from the Web server to display in the user's Web browser. All publicly accessible websites are seen collectively as constituting the "World Wide Web". The pages of websites can usually be accessed from a common root URL called the homepage, and usually reside on the same physical server. The URLs of the pages organize them into a hierarchy, although the hyperlinks between them control how the reader perceives the overall structure and how the traffic flows between the different parts of the sites. Some websites require a subscription to access some or all of their content. Examples of subscription sites include many business sites, parts of many news sites, academic journal sites, gaming sites, message boards, Web-based e-mail, services, social networking websites, and sites providing real-time stock market data.


Psychonauts is a platform video game created by Tim Schafer (known for several LucasArts adventure games such as Grim Fandango and the first two Monkey Island games), developed by Double Fine Productions and published by Majesco. The game was first released on April 19, 2005 for the Microsoft Xbox, and has subsequently been ported to the Sony PlayStation 2 and Microsoft Windows; it has also been released on the Steam platform, as an "Xbox Original" through Xbox Live Marketplace, and as a free playable title on the GameTap basic subscription service. Psychonauts is based on the exploits of Raz, a young boy gifted with psychic abilities who escapes the circus to try to sneak into a summer camp for those with similar powers in order to become a "Psychonaut". He finds that there is a sinister plot occurring at the camp that only he can stop from happening. The game is centered on the widely strange and imaginative minds of various characters that Raz enters as a Psychonaut-in-training in order to help them overcome their fears or memories of their past in order to gain their help and progress in the game. Raz gains use of several psychic abilities during the game that are used for both attacking foes and solving puzzles. While the game suffered from poor sales and publisher Majesco suffered financial difficulties relating to Psychonauts and other titles in its catalog, Psychonauts received strong praise and is considered one of the best platformers of the seventh console generation.


Portal is a single-player first-person action/puzzle video game developed by the Valve Corporation. The game was released in the bundle package The Orange Box for Microsoft Windows and Xbox 360 on October 9, 2007, and for the PlayStation 3 on December 11, 2007. The Windows version of the game is also available for download separately through Valve's content delivery system, Steam and was released as a standalone retail product on April 9, 2008. The game consists primarily of a series of puzzles that must be solved by teleporting the player's character and other simple objects using the Aperture Science Handheld Portal Device (dubbed the "Portal Gun"), a unit that can create an inter-spatial portal between flat planes. The player character is challenged by an AI named "GLaDOS" to complete each puzzle in the "Aperture Science Enrichment Center" using the Portal Gun with the promise of receiving cake when all the puzzles are completed. The unusual physics allowed by the portal gun are the emphasis of this game, and is an extension of a similar portal concept in Narbacular Drop; many of the team from the DigiPen Institute of Technology that worked on Narbacular Drop were hired by Valve for the creation of Portal. Portal has been acclaimed as one of the most original games in 2007 despite being a comparatively short game. The game has received praise for its unique gameplay and darkly humorous story (created with the assistance of Erik Wolpaw and Chet Faliszek of "Old Man Murray" fame), the "character" of GLaDOS (voiced by Ellen McLain), and the final credits song, "Still Alive" (written by Jonathan Coulton for the game). The game's popularity has led to official merchandise from Valve as well as fan creations using elements of the game.

Ben "Yahtzee" Croshaw

Ben "Yahtzee" Croshaw (born May 24, 1983, Warwickshire, England) is the British-born author of adventure games created using Adventure Game Studio software. He also writes articles for Australia's Hyper magazine, a major games publication. He uses his website "Fully Ramblomatic" as an outlet for his own work, including weekly dark humour articles, essays, the novels Articulate Jim: The Search for Something and Fog Juice, and webcomics including Yahtzee Takes On The World and his most recent, Chris & Trilby. He is currently making a series of video-reviews named Zero Punctuation for The Escapist. In the February 2008 issue of PC Gamer (US), Croshaw took over Gary Whitta's "Backspace" column as a contributing editor.

The Escapist

The Escapist is an online magazine covering video games, gamers, the gaming industry, and gaming culture. Published by the Themis Group, it is edited by Julianne Greer, and was first published on July 12, 2005. The Escapist, which claims "print-quality writing", runs weekly with a main edition published on Tuesday; originally, a weekend extra edition was published on Friday. Each issue addresses a particular theme related to gaming culture. It is free and only available online.


Adobe Flash - previously called Shockwave Flash and Macromedia Flash - is a set of multimedia technologies developed and distributed by Adobe Systems and earlier by Macromedia. Since its introduction in 1996, Flash technology has become a popular method for adding animation and interactivity to web pages; Flash is commonly used to create animation, advertisements, various web page components, to integrate video into web pages, and more recently, to develop rich Internet applications. Flash can manipulate vector and raster graphics and supports bi-directional streaming of audio and video. It contains a scripting language called ActionScript. It is available in most common web browsers and some mobile phones and other electronic devices (using Flash Lite). Several software products, systems, and devices are able to create or display Flash, including the Adobe Flash Player. The Adobe Flash Professional multimedia authoring program used to create content for the Adobe Engagement Platform, such as web applications, games and movies, and content for mobile phones and other embedded devices. Files in the SWF format, traditionally called "Flash movies" or "Flash games", usually have a .swf file extension and may be an object of a web page, strictly "played" in a standalone Flash Player, or incorporated into a Projector, a self-executing Flash movie (with the .exe extension in Microsoft Windows). Flash Video (FLV) files have a .flv file extension and are used from within .swf files.

Charlie Brooker

Charlton Brooker, commonly known as Charlie Brooker, (born 3 March 1971 Reading, Berkshire) is a British comedy writer, cartoonist, journalist and television presenter. His style of humour is savage and profane, with surreal elements and a consistent satirical pessimism. He is particularly known for his highly acclaimed TV show Screenwipe, his review columns for The Guardian newspaper and is one of four creative directors of comedy production company Zeppotron.


A public house, usually known as a pub, is an establishment which serves alcoholic drinks — especially beer — for consumption on the premises, usually in a comfortable setting. Pubs originated in English-speaking countries, particularly in the United Kingdom and Ireland and are now found globally. In North America, drinking establishments with a British or Irish name or theme are called pubs as well. Although the terms may have different connotations, there is no definitive difference between pubs, bars, taverns and lounges where alcohol is served commercially. Traditionally, a pub which offers lodging may be called an inn or (more recently) hotel in the UK. Today many pubs, in the UK and Australia in particular, with the word "inn" or "hotel" in their name no longer offer accommodation, or in some cases have never done so. Some pubs bear the name of "hotel" because they are in countries where stringent anti-drinking laws were once in force. Until 1976 in Scotland only hotels could serve alcohol on Sundays. One of the most common form of pub around the world is the Irish Pub, highlighted by its association with Guinness Stout and renowned for its 'Craic' (Irish for Fun).

Bed and Breakfast

Bed and breakfast, also known as B&B, is a term, originating in the United Kingdom, but now also used in the USA and Canada, for an establishment that offers bed accommodation, and breakfast in return for payment, but usually does not offer other meals. Typically, bed and breakfasts are private homes with only one or two bedrooms available for commercial use. A boarding house is different from and has a longer history than a bed and breakfast facility. The boarding house is for longer term stays, whereas bed and breakfast is for people travelling through the area on short stays.


Smoking bans are public policies, including criminal laws and occupational safety and health regulations, which restrict tobacco smoking in workplaces and public spaces. The rationale cited for smoking bans is the protection of workers, in particular, from the harmful effects of second-hand smoke, which include an increased risk of heart disease, cancer, emphysema and other chronic and acute diseases. Laws implementing bans on indoor smoking have been introduced by many countries in various forms over the years, with legislators citing scientific evidence that shows tobacco smoking is often harmful to the smokers themselves and to those inhaling second-hand smoke. In addition, such laws may affect health care costs, improve work productivity and lower the overall cost of labor in a community, thus making a community more attractive for bringing new jobs into the area and keeping current jobs and employers in an area. In Indiana for example, the state's economic development agency wrote into its 2006 plan for acceleration of economic growth that it encourages cities and towns to adopt local smoke-free workplace laws as a means of promoting job growth in communities. Additional rationales for smoking restrictions include reduced risk of fire in areas with explosive hazards or where flammable materials are handled, cleanliness in places where food or pharmaceuticals, semiconductors or precision instruments and machinery are produced, decreased legal liability, potentially reduced energy use via decreased ventilation needs, reduced quantities of litter, and to encourage current smokers to quit.


Inns are establishments where travellers can procure food, drink, and lodging. Found in Europe, they first sprang up when the Romans built their system of highways two millennia ago. Some inns in Europe are centuries old. In addition to providing for the needs of travellers, inns traditionally acted as community gathering places. "Inn" in more recent times has often come to denote a business serving alcoholic beverages, especially in North America, where they are usually alcohol-serving restaurants that have never provided lodging or serviced the needs of travellers. In Europe, it is the provision of accommodation, if anything, that now differentiates inns from taverns, alehouses and pubs. These later tend only to supply alcohol (although in the UK the conditions of their licence sometimes require them to have a nominal supply of food and soft drinks). Inns tend to be grander and more long-lived establishments. Famous London examples include the George and the Tabard. There is however no longer a formal distinction between an inn and other kinds of establishment, and many pubs will use the name "inn", either simply because they are long established, or to summon up a particular kind of image; however, originally an Inn had to provide not only food and lodging, but also stabling and fodder for the traveller's horse(s).


Taunton is a bustling county town dating back to Saxon times, nestling on the banks of the river Tone. It has a turbulent past and featured in many bloody uprising, the most famous being the Monmouth Rebellion of 1685, which ended in Judge Jeffereys' infamous 'Bloody Assize' which was held in the great hall of the castle. Such was the town's reputation that Queen Victoria allegedly drew the curtains of the train as she passed through! Dominating all is the parish church of St Mary Magdalene with its superbly decorated tower, the highest in Somerset. Starting here, follow the Taunton Heritage Trail around the centre and discover the town's architectural gems and its hidden corners. The town prides itself on its award winning floral displays and gardens. Vivary Park, centrally located at the top of the High Street. Pass through the ornate iron gates and admire the Victorian bandstand and ornate fountain, all recently restored to their former glory. See the park at its best when it hosts the Taunton Flower Show, the 'Chelsea of the West', in early August. With an intriguing selection of shops complemented by the best in High Street names, shopping in Taunton is now even more enticing with many visitors enjoying a full day out complimented by great food, nightclubs and accommodation.


A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging, usually on a short-term basis. Hotels often provide a number of additional guest services such as a restaurant, a swimming pool or childcare. Some hotels have conference services and meeting rooms and encourage groups to hold conventions and meetings at their location. In Australia or Canada, the word may also refer to a pub or bar. In India, the word may also refer to a restaurant since the best restaurants were always situated next to a good hotel.


Discussion/debating is a formal method of interactive and position representational argument. Debate is a broader form of argument than logical argument, since it includes persuasion which appeals to the emotional responses of an audience, and rules enabling people to discuss and decide on differences, within a framework defining how they will interact.


Linux is a free open-source operating system based on Unix. Linux was originally created by Linus Torvalds with the assistance of other developers.

Operating System

An Operating System is historically the minimal set of software needed to manage a device's hardware capability and share it between application programs.

Open source

This is a less-confusing name for what is also called 'Free Software'. It describes the development method used for many pieces of software, including the Linux kernel, where the source is freely available for anyone to work on, or modify, or learn from, or use in other projects.


Programming refers to the designing, writing, testing, debugging, and documentation of computer programs.


Web-based email or webmail is a term referring to an e-mail service intended to be primarily accessed via a web browser, as opposed to through an email client, such as Microsoft Outlook, Mozilla's Thunderbird, or Apple's Mail.


E-mail, short for electronic mail and often abbreviated to e-mail, email or simply mail, is a store and forward method of composing, sending, receiving and storing messages over electronic communication systems. The term "e-mail" (as a noun or verb) applies both to the Internet e-mail system based on the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) and to X.400 systems, and to intranet systems allowing users within one organization to e-mail each other. Intranets may use the Internet protocols or X.400 protocols for internal e-mail service supporting workgroup collaboration. E-mail is often used to deliver bulk unsolicited messages, or "spam", but filter programs exist which can automatically delete some or most of these, depending on the situation.


PHP (PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor) is a computer scripting language, originally designed for producing dynamic web pages. It is mainly used in server-side scripting, but can be used from a command line interface or in standalone graphical applications.


The Internet is a global network of computers. Its most common use is the world wide web, via the http and https protocols.


The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known simply as the BBC, is the world's largest broadcasting corporation. It has 28,000 employees in the United Kingdom alone and an annual budget of more than £4 billion. Founded on 18 October 1922 as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd, it was subsequently granted a Royal Charter and made a state-owned corporation in 1927. The corporation produces programmes and information services, broadcasting globally on television, radio, and the Internet. The stated mission of the BBC is "to inform, educate and entertain" (as laid down by Parliament in the BBC Charter); its motto is "Nation Shall Speak Peace Unto Nation". The BBC is a quasi-autonomous public corporation as a public service broadcaster. The Corporation is run by the BBC Trust; and is, per its charter, "free from both political and commercial influence and answers only to its viewers and listeners".


Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Inc., or MGM, is an American media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of films and television programs. From the end of the silent film era through World War II, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer was the most prominent motion picture studio in Hollywood, with the greatest output of all of the studios: at its height, it released an average of one feature film a week, along with many short subjects and serials. A victim of the massive restructuring of the motion picture industry during the 1950s and 60s, it was ultimately unable to cope with the loss of its theater chain – due to the U.S. Supreme Court decision United States v. Paramount Pictures, Inc. (1948) – and the power shift from studio bosses to independent producers and agents.


Google was co-founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were students at Stanford University and the company was first incorporated as a privately held company on September 7, 1998. Google Inc. is an American public corporation, earning revenue from online and mobile advertising related to its Internet search, web-based e-mail, online mapping, office productivity, social networking, and video sharing as well as selling advertising-free versions of the same technologies. Google's headquarters, the Googleplex, is located in Mountain View, California, and the company has 16,805 full-time employees (as of December 31, 2007). It is the largest American company (by market capitalization) that is not part of the Dow Jones Industrial Average (as of October 31, 2007).

Search Engine

A Web search engine is a search engine designed to search for information on the World Wide Web. Information may consist of web pages, images and other types of files. Some search engines also mine data available in newsgroups, databases, or open directories. Unlike Web directories, which are maintained by human editors, search engines operate algorithmically or are a mixture of algorithmic and human input.


A video game is a game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device. The word video in video game traditionally referred to a raster display device. However, with the popular use of the term "video game", it now implies any type of display device. The electronic systems used to play video games are known as platforms; examples of these are personal computers and video game consoles. These platforms are broad in range, from large computers to small handheld devices. Specialized video games such as arcade games, while previously common, have gradually declined in use.


Music is an art form in which the medium is sound. Elements of music are pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, meter, and articulation), dynamics, structure, and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture.


Steam is a digital distribution, digital rights management, multiplayer and communications platform developed by Valve Corporation. It is used to digitally distribute and manage games ranging from first-person shooters and RPGs to racing games and cross-genre independent titles


Microsoft Corporation, or often just MS, is an American multinational computer technology corporation with 79,000 employees in 102 countries and global annual revenue of US $51.12 billion as of 2007. It develops, manufactures, licenses, and supports a wide range of software products for computing devices. Headquartered in Redmond, Washington, USA, its best selling products are the Microsoft Windows operating system and the Microsoft Office suite of productivity software. These products have prominent positions in the desktop computer market, with market share estimates as high as 90% or more as of 2003 for Microsoft Office and 2006 for Microsoft Windows. One of Bill Gates' key visions is "to get a workstation running our software onto every desk and eventually in every home".


Microsoft Windows is the name of several families of software operating systems by Microsoft. Microsoft first introduced an operating environment named Windows in November 1985 as an add-on to MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market, overtaking Mac OS, which had been introduced previously. At the 2004 IDC Directions conference, IDC Vice President Avneesh Saxena stated that Windows had approximately 90% of the client operating system market. The most recent client version of Windows is Windows Vista. The current server version of Windows is Windows Server 2008.


Stargate refers to the science fiction media franchise that began in 1994 with the feature film Stargate. The subsequent body of works detail an elaborate fictional universe where Earth battles hostile aliens possessing superior technology or supernatural powers. The film's story is continued in novel form, in two live-action television series (Stargate SG-1 and Stargate Atlantis), one animated series (Stargate Infinity), and in other derivative works. The franchise, owned by MGM, continues to be successful 14 years after its inception. Due to multiple developers working separately and independently on the franchise over the years, the various Stargate productions are not entirely consistent with each other: no set of works forms a "correct" or official canon. The largest fanbase exists for the story that begins with the original film, and continues with Stargate SG-1 (1997–2007) and Stargate Atlantis (since 2004).

Science Fiction

Science fiction (abbreviated SF or Sci-Fi with varying punctuation and case) is a broad genre of fiction that often involves speculations based on current or future science or technology. Science fiction is found in books, art, television, films, games, theater, and other media. In organizational or marketing contexts, science fiction can be synonymous with the broader definition of speculative fiction, encompassing creative works incorporating imaginative elements not found in contemporary reality; this includes fantasy, horror, and related genres. Science fiction differs from fantasy in that, within the context of the story, its imaginary elements are largely possible within scientifically established or scientifically postulated laws of nature (though some elements in a story might still be pure imaginative speculation).

Remote control

A remote control is any device used for the remote operation of a machine. This can be a literal controller or a software-based remote control environment.


Vidoes are graphics that use technology to create the illusion of motion or a transforming appearance. These motion graphics are usually combined with audio for use in multimedia projects. Motion graphics are usually displayed via electronic media technology.


In biological terms, a community is a group of interacting organisms sharing an environment. The word community is derived from the Latin communitas (meaning the same), which is in turn derived from communis, which means "common, public, shared by all or many". Communis comes from a combination of the Latin prefix con- (which means "together") and the word munis (which has to do with performing services). In human communities, intent, belief, resources, preferences, needs, risks and a number of other conditions may be present and common, affecting the identity of the participants and their degree of cohesiveness. Traditionally in sociology, a "community" has been defined as a group of interacting people living in a common location. However, the definition of the word "community" has evolved to mean individuals who share characteristics, regardless of their location or degree of interaction.


Hardware is a general term that refers to the physical artifacts of a technology. It may also mean the physical components of a computer system, in the form of computer hardware. Hardware historicnally meant the metal parts and fittings that were used to make wooden products stronger, more functional, longer lasting and easier to fabricate or assemble. In modern usage it includes equipment such as keys, locks, hinges, latches, corners, handles, wire, chains, plumbing supplies, tools, utensils, cutlery and machine parts, especially when they are made of metal. In the United States, this type of hardware has been traditionally sold in hardware stores, a term also used to a lesser extent in the UK. In the electronics and especially computer industries, computer hardware specifically means the physical or tangible parts of the equipment, such as circuit boards, keyboards, monitors etc., in contrast to non-physical software running on the computer or other device. In a more colloquial sense, hardware can refer to major items of military equipment, such as tanks, aircraft or ships. Generally, Hardware is that thing of Computer that can be felt or touched Physically.


Computer software is a general term used to describe a collection of computer programs, procedures and documentation that perform some tasks on a computer system. The term includes application software such as word processors which perform productive tasks for users, system software such as operating systems, which interface with hardware to provide the necessary services for application software, and middleware which controls and co-ordinates distributed systems.


A laptop computer, or simply laptop (also notebook computer, notebook and notepad) is a small mobile computer, which usually weighs 2-18 pounds (around 1 to 8 kilograms), depending on size, materials, and other factors. Laptops usually run on a single main battery or from an external AC/DC adapter that charges the battery while also supplying power to the computer itself. Many computers also have a 3 volt cell to run the clock and other processes in the event of a power failure.


A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. The first devices that resemble modern computers date to the mid-20th century (around 1940 - 1945), although the computer concept and various machines similar to computers existed earlier. Early electronic computers were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers. Modern computers are based on tiny integrated circuits and are millions to billions of times more capable while occupying a fraction of the space. Today, simple computers may be made small enough to fit into a wristwatch and be powered from a watch battery. Personal computers in various forms are icons of the Information Age and are what most people think of as "a computer"; however, the most common form of computer in use today is the embedded computer. Embedded computers are small, simple devices that are used to control other devices — for example, they may be found in machines ranging from fighter aircraft to industrial robots, digital cameras, and children's toys.

Digital camera

A digital camera is a camera that takes video or still photographs, or both, digitally by recording images on a light-sensitive sensor. Many compact digital still cameras can record sound and moving video as well as still photographs. In the Western market, digital cameras outsell their 35 mm film counterparts. Digital cameras can include features that are not found in film cameras, such as displaying an image on the camera's screen immediately after it is recorded, the capacity to take thousands of images on a single small memory device, the ability to record video with sound, the ability to edit images, and deletion of images allowing re-use of the storage they occupied.


Television (often abbreviated to TV) is a widely used telecommunication system for broadcasting and receiving moving pictures and sound over a distance. The term may also be used to refer specifically to a television set, programming or television transmission.


A blog (an abridgment of the term web log) is a website where entries are commonly displayed in reverse chronological order. "Blog" can also be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog. Many blogs provide commentary or news on a particular subject; others function as more personal online diaries. A typical blog combines text, images, and links to other blogs, web pages, and other media related to its topic.


A fan could be either someone who has an intense appreciation for something(s) or someone(s), or mechanical fans such as oscillating fans, ceiling fans, blowers, etc.

Laminate flooring

Laminate flooring is type of hard flooring material made of layers of different materials. Laminate flooring is made to look like natural products such as wood flooring or natural stone, yet is made up of either synthetic materials (usually melamine resin) or of synthetic materials combined with natural and recycled ingredients (eg chipboard) and covered with an attached decorative layer. Often a varnished finish is used with added aluminum oxide for greater durability, and to eliminate the need for the fitter to varnish.


In architecture, a floor is generally the lower horizontal surface of a room, and/or the supporting structure underneath it. A floor typically consists of a support structure called a sub-floor on top of which is laid a floor covering to provide a walking surface. The work of installing a floor covering is called flooring. This term is also used to refer to any permanent floor covering and in particular to wood flooring. The various levels in a building are also called floors.

Engineered flooring

Rather than having one solid piece of hardwood, the engineered hardwood method uses layers of hardwood veneer to create a product that can range in thickness from 3/8" or 8mm up to 9/16" or 14mm thick. The wood veneer can range in thickness depending on the manufacturer. In order to create an engineered hardwood, these veneer layers are stacked on top of each other with the grain of the wood facing perpendicular to each other. Once the desired thickness is achieved, the boards are then cut into the correct board width. From there, the boards are then manufactured to have a tongue or groove on the edges. The final step is to add stain if necessary, and add a finish. By doing this, the engineered hardwood becomes less susceptible to the effects of moisture and temperature change, because wood expands and contracts in the width of the grain direction. Therefore engineered hardwood is referred to as being dimensionally stable. Solid hardwood does not have dimensional stability because all of the grain runs in the same direction. Because of its dimensional stability, engineered hardwood can be glued directly to concrete above or below grade, as opposed to solid hardwood which cannot.


The term hardwood designates wood from broad-leaved (mostly deciduous, but not necessarily, in the case of tropical trees) or angiosperm trees. Hardwood contrasts with softwood, which comes from conifer trees. On average, hardwood is of higher density and hardness than softwood, but there is considerable variation in actual wood hardness in both groups, with a large amount of overlap; some hardwoods (e.g. balsa) are softer than most softwoods, while yew is an example of a hard softwood. Hardwoods have broad leaves and enclosed nuts or seeds such as acorns. They often grow in subtropical regions like Africa and also in Europe and other regions such as Asia. The dominant feature separating hardwoods from softwoods is the presence of pores, or vessels.


Quickstep is a large manufacturer of laminate flooring.


A laminate is a material constructed by uniting two or more layers of material together. A Example of a use for laminate is laminate wood flooring where a layer of plywood (or other material) is used together with a wood veneer as a top layer.

Solid wood

Solid wood Flooring is produced and sourced from totally natural wood products, real wood flooring provides a totally unique and luxurious finishing touch to any room.

Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) is both the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science which aims to create it. Among the traits that researchers hope machines will exhibit are reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, communication, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects. General intelligence (or "strong AI") has not yet been achieved and is a long-term goal of AI research.


A chatterbot (or chatbot) is a type of conversational agent, a computer program designed to simulate an intelligent conversation with one or more human users via auditory or textual methods. Though many appear to be intelligently interpreting the human input prior to providing a response, most chatterbots simply scan for keywords within the input and pull a reply with the most matching keywords or the most similar wording pattern from a local database. Chatterbots may also be referred to as talk bots, chat bots, or chatterboxes.

Natural language

In the philosophy of language, a natural language (or ordinary language) is a language that is spoken, written, or signed by humans for general-purpose communication, as distinguished from formal languages (such as computer-programming languages or the "languages" used in the study of formal logic, especially mathematical logic) and from constructed languages.


The word reference may refer to a dictionary, encyclopedia, or other reference work that contains many brief articles that cover a broad scope of knowledge in one book, or a set of books.


Knowledge is defined as (i) expertise, and skills acquired by a person through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject, (ii) what is known in a particular field or in total; facts and information or (iii) awareness or familiarity gained by experience of a fact or situation. Philosophical debates in general start with Plato's formulation of knowledge as "justified true belief". There is however no single agreed definition of knowledge presently, nor any prospect of one, and there remain numerous competing theories.

Social network

A social network service uses software to build online social networks for communities of people who share interests and activities or who are interested in exploring the interests and activities of others.


Friendship is a term used to denote co-operative and supportive behavior between two or more humans. This article focuses on the notion specific to interpersonal relationships. In this sense, the term connotes a relationship which involves mutual knowledge, esteem, and affection along with a degree of rendering service to friends in times of need or crisis. Friends will welcome each other's company and exhibit loyalty towards each other, often to the point of altruism.


Online chat can refer to any kind of communication over the Internet, but is primarily meant to refer to direct one-on-one chat or text-based group chat (formally also known as synchronous conferencing), using tools such as instant messaging applications—computer programs, Internet Relay Chat, talkers and possibly MUDs, MUCKs, MUSHes and MOOes. The expression online chat comes from the word chat which means "informal conversation".

Web design

Web design is a process of conceptualization, planning, modeling, and execution of electronic media content delivery via Internet in the form of technologies (such as markup languages) suitable for interpretation and display by a web browser or other web-based graphical user interfaces (GUIs).


Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of improving the volume and quality of traffic to a web site from search engines via "natural" ("organic" or "algorithmic") search results for targeted keywords. Usually, the earlier a site is presented in the search results or the higher it "ranks", the more searchers will visit that site. SEO can also target different kinds of search, including image search, local search, and industry-specific vertical search engines.


Electronic commerce, commonly known as e-commerce or eCommerce, consists of the buying and selling of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. The amount of trade conducted electronically has grown extraordinarily since the spread of the Internet. A wide variety of commerce is conducted in this way, spurring and drawing on innovations in electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI), inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems. Modern electronic commerce typically uses the World Wide Web at least at some point in the transaction's lifecycle, although it can encompass a wider range of technologies such as e-mail as well.


A bath, bathtub, or tub is a plumbing fixture used for bathing. Most modern bathtubs are made of acrylic or fiberglass, but alternatives are available in enamel over steel or cast iron, and occasionally wood. A bathtub is usually placed in a bathroom either as a stand-alone fixture or in conjunction with a shower.


A shower is the act of spraying water on the body, or a device built for that purpose. When 'taken' for personal hygiene, soap or detergent are often used to aid washing of the skin, and shampoo to aid hair washing. Showering generally uses less water and energy than taking a bath. A full bathroom may include a shower, but a half bathroom will not.

Home accessories

A home is a place where a person, family, or group of people live together. A home usually acts as a place to sleep and store personal property, and contains sanitary facilities and a means of preparing food.


The vase is an open container, often used to hold cut flowers. It can be made from a number of materials including ceramics and glass. The vase is often decorated and thus used to extend the beauty of its contents.

Animal figures

Animal figures have great detail, and offer children wonderful education value.


Outer space, often simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. Outer space is used to distinguish it from airspace (and terrestrial locations). Contrary to popular understanding, outer space is not completely empty (i.e. a perfect vacuum) but contains a low density of particles, predominantly hydrogen plasma, as well as electromagnetic radiation. Hypothetically, it also contains dark matter and dark energy.

Online Games

Online games are games played over some form of computer network. At the present, this almost always means the Internet or equivalent technology; but games have always used whatever technology was current: modems before the internet, and hard wired terminals before modems. The expansion of online gaming has reflected the overall expansion of computer networks from small local networks to the Internet and the growth of Internet access itself. Online games can range from simple text based games to games incorporating complex graphics and virtual worlds populated by many players simultaneously. Many online games have associated online communities, making online games a form of social activity beyond single player games.


Massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) is a genre of online computer role-playing games (CRPGs) in which a large number of players interact with one another in a virtual world. The term MMORPG was coined by Richard Garriott, the creator of Ultima Online, the first truly massive multiplayer online role-playing game in 1997.


A review is an evaluation of a publication, such as a movie, video game, musical composition, book, or a piece of hardware like a car, appliance, or computer. In addition to a critical statement, the review's author may assign the work a rating (for instance, one to five stars) to indicate its relative merit. More loosely, an author may review current events or items in the news.

Virtual Console

Virtual Console, sometimes abbreviated as VC, is a specialized section of the Wii Shop Channel, an online service that allows players to purchase and download games and other software for the Wii gaming console. The Virtual Console lineup consists of titles originally released on now defunct past consoles. These titles are run in their original forms through software emulation. The library of past games currently consists of titles originating from the Nintendo Entertainment System, Super Nintendo Entertainment System, and Nintendo 64, as well as Sega's Mega Drive/Genesis and Master System, NEC's TurboGrafx-16 and TurboGrafx-CD, and SNK's Neo Geo AES.

Nintendo Wii

The Nintendo Wii is the fifth home video game console released by Nintendo. The console is the direct successor to the Nintendo GameCube. Nintendo states that its console targets a broader demographic than that of Microsoft's Xbox 360 and Sony's PlayStation 3, but it competes with both as part of the seventh generation of video game systems.

Retro Gaming

Retro is a term used to describe aspects of modern culture which are consciously derivative or imitative of those trends, modes, fashions, or attitudes of the recent past which have or had come to be seen as unfashionable.


WiiWare (Wii Software in Europe) is a portion of the Wii Shop Channel that specializes in applications and games specifically designed for the Wii video game console. These applications and games are also collectively known as "WiiWare". The WiiWare section is being touted as a forum to provide developers with small budgets to release innovative, original, and smaller-scale games without the investment and risk of creating a title to be sold at retail (somewhat akin to Xbox Live Arcade and PlayStation Store). According to Nintendo the "remarkable motion controls will give birth to fresh takes on established genres, as well as original ideas that currently exist only in developers' minds". Nintendo will handle all pricing options for the downloadable games.


Offense (offence in British English) can be defined as a word or action which causes someone emotional hurt, or otherwise can inflame an individual. Offense is often a very relative concept, since the feeling of offense often is dependent upon one's personal values.


Humour or humor (see spelling differences) is the ability of people, objects, situations or words to evoke feelings of amusement or happiness in people. A sense of humour is the ability to experience humour, although the extent to which an individual will find something humorous depends on a host of variables, including geographical location, culture, maturity, level of education, intelligence, and context.


A pony is a small horse with a specific conformation and temperament. There are many different breeds of ponies. Compared to horses, ponies often exhibit thicker manes, tails and overall coat, as well as proportionally shorter legs, wider barrels, heavier bone, thicker necks, and shorter heads with broader foreheads.


Horses have long been among the most economically important domesticated animals, especially relied upon for farmwork and for transportation for centuries; however their importance declined with the introduction of mechanization. The history of the horse is prominent in religion, mythology, art, transportation, agriculture, and warfare.


A gift or present is the transfer of something, without the need for compensation that is involved in trade. A gift is a voluntary act which does not require anything in return. Even though it involves possibly a social expectation of reciprocity, or a return in the form of prestige or power, a gift is meant to be free.

Personalised Gifts

Personalised gifts include mugs, t-shirts, pens, general apparel. Generally, a personalised gift can be changed by the person who orders the gift so that it is unique to themselves the person they are buying the gift for.


T-shirts are typically made of cotton or polyester fibers (or a mix of the two), knitted together in a jersey stitch that gives a T-shirt its distinctive soft texture. T-shirts are often decorated with text and/or pictures, sometimes used to advertise. T-shirt fashions include styles for men and women, and for all age groups, including baby, youth and adult sizes.


An antique is generally an old and/or collectible item. They are collected or desired because of their age, rarity, condition, utility, or other unique features. Most often an antique will represent a previous era in human society.

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